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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Acute Toxic Exposure In Children: An Overview
Author: Bucaretchi F.
Baracat E.C.E.
Abstract: Objective: To review the literature on acute toxic exposure in children, excluding envenomations. Sources of data: MEDLINE review (emphasis on the past decade), including the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists' position statements and position papers (peer-reviewed information based on scientific evidence and broad consensus) on gastrointestinal decontamination, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization. Summary of the findings: Acute toxic exposure in children is a common event, mainly in children under six years of age. Death is rare. Although widely employed, there is no evidence that gastrointestinal decontamination and multiple-dose activated charcoal improve the outcome of poisoned patients. Very few efficient antidotes are used on a consistent basis, and some of them are very expensive and not available in Brazil. Conclusions: Ipecac syrup and cathartics should not be administered on a routine basis in acute toxic exposures in outpatient treatment. Excluding the contraindications, single-dose activated charcoal and gastric lavage may be considered within one hour of ingestion if a patient ingested a potentially toxic amount or a potentially lethal amount, respectively. Whole bowel irrigation, multiple-dose activated charcoal and urine alkalinization may be considered in a few situations. Fomepizole and octreotide are safe and efficient antidotes, which can be used in the treatment of alcohol (methanol and ethylene glycol) and sulfonylureas poisoning, respectively. Copyright © 2005 by Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.
Citation: Jornal De Pediatria. , v. 81, n. 5 SUPPL., p. S212 - S222, 2005.
Rights: aberto
Identifier DOI: 10.2223/JPED.1410
Date Issue: 2005
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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