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Type: Artigo de periódico
Title: Lagrangian-Hamiltonian formulation of paraxial optics and applications: Study of gauge symmetries and the optical spin Hall effect
Author: Dartora, CA
Cabrera, GG
Nobrega, KZ
Montagner, VF
Matielli, MHK
de Campos, FKR
Filho, HTS
Abstract: In the context of the paraxial regime, usually valid for optical frequencies and also in the microwave spectrum of guided waves, the propagation of electromagnetic fields can be analyzed through a paraxial wave equation, which is analogous to the nonrelativistic Schrodinger equation of quantum mechanics but replacing time t with spatial coordinate z. Considering that, here it is shown that for lossless media in optical frequencies it is possible to construct a Lagrangian operator with an one-to-one correspondence with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, which allows someone to use the same mathematical methods and techniques for solving problems. To demonstrate that, we explore a few applications in optics with increasing levels of complexity. In the spirit of a Hamiltonian formulation, the ray-tracing trajectories of geometric optics in paraxial regime are obtained in a clear manner. Following that, the gauge symmetries of the optical-field Lagrangian density is discussed in a detailed way, leading to the general form of the interaction Hamiltonian. Through the use of perturbation theory, we discuss a classical analog for a quantum NOT gate, making use of mode coupling in an isotropic chiral medium. At last, we explore the optical spin Hall effect and its possible applications using an effective geometric optics equation derived from an interaction Hamiltonian for the optical fields. We also predict within the framework of paraxial optics a spin Hall effect of light induced by gravitational fields.
Country: EUA
Editor: Amer Physical Soc
Citation: Physical Review A. Amer Physical Soc, v. 83, n. 1, 2011.
Rights: aberto
Identifier DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.012110
Date Issue: 2011
Appears in Collections:Unicamp - Artigos e Outros Documentos

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