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|Title:||Benzimidazoles in wastewater: Analytical method development, monitoring and degradation by photolysis and ozonation|
|Author:||Porto, Rafael Silveira|
|Abstract:||Pharmaceutical residues are constantly released into natural waters, mainly from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) whose processes are unable to completely eliminate them. Among these drugs, the occurrence of benzimidazoles, a class of antiparasitics for human and veterinary use, has been reported in WWTP effluents and surface waters. In this study, an SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and optimized for extraction and quantitation of benzimidazoles in influents and effluents of a local WWTP and in hospital wastewater. The extraction procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (Box-Behnken design) and the optimal parameters were as follows: 2.0 mL of loading solvent consisting of a mixture of water:methanol (95:5, v/v) and temperature at 43 degrees C. In hospital wastewater, albendazole (ABZ) and its principal metabolite ricobendazole (RBZ) were the main benzimidazole-related contaminants and were found at concentrations of up to 3810 and 3894 ng L-1, respectively. The WWTP system was able to remove from 46% to 95% of the ABZ quantified in the influent, discharging an effluent with 16-441 ng L-1 of ABZ. The concentrations of other benzimidazoles and metabolites in the WWTP effluents remained below 350 ng L-1. WWTP effluents fortified with 50 mu g L-1 of ABZ required 26.7 mg(o3) L-1 to remove ABZ and RBZ. After ozonation, the COD and BOD5 of the effluents were reduced by 27%. Photolysis by UVA radiation was not effective to remove ABZ and FBZ from the effluent samples|
|Appears in Collections:||IQ - Artigos e Outros Documentos|
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